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extreme mountain biking

1.An extreme sport (also called action sport and adventure sport) is a popular term for certain activities perceived as having a high level of inherent danger,[1][2][3] and that are counter-cultural. These activities often involve speed, height, a high level of physical exertion, and highly specialized gear or spectacular stuntsIn 2004, author Joe Tomlinson classified extreme sports into those that take place in air, land, and water,[9]Nine air sports are mentioned including: BASE jumping, bungee jumping, gliding, hang gliding, high wire, ski jumping, sky diving, sky surfing, and sky flying.Eighteen land sports including:indoor climbing, adventure racing, aggressive inline skating, BMX, caving, extreme motocross, extreme skiing, freestyle skiing, land and ice yachting, mountain biking, mountain boarding, outdoor climbing, sandboarding, skateboarding, snowboarding, snowmobiling, speed biking, speed skiing, scootering and street luge.Fifteen water sports including: barefoot water skiing, cliff diving, free-diving, jet skiing, open water swimming, powerboat racing, round the world yacht racing, scuba diving, snorkeling, speed sailing, surfing, wakeboarding, whitewater kayaking, windsurfing.介绍蹦极:Bungee Jump in Normandy, France (Souleuvre Via ct)Bungee jumping ( ?b?nd?i?; also spelled "Bungy" jumping)[1][2] is an activity that involves jumping from a tall structure while connected to a large elastic cord. The tall structure is usually a fixed object, such as a building, bridge or crane; but it is also possible to jump from a movable object, such as a hot-air-balloon or helicopter, that has the ability to hover above the ground. The thrill comes as much from the free-falling as from the rebounds.[3]When the person jumps, the cord stretches and the jumper flies upwards again as the cord snaps back, and continues to oscillate up and down until all the energy is dissipated.Equipment Bungee jumping off the Victoria Falls Bridge in ZambiaZimbabweThe elastic rope first used in bungee jumping, and still used by many commercial operators, is factory-pro ced braided shock cord. This consists of many latex strands enclosed in a tough outer cover. The outer cover may be applied when the latex is pre-stressed, so that the cord's resistance to extension is already significant at the cord's natural length. This gives a harder, sharper bounce. The braided cover also provides significant rability benefits. Other operators, including A J Hackett and most southern-hemisphere operators, use unbraided cords with exposed latex strands (pictured at right). These give a softer, longer bounce and can be home-pro ced.There may be a certain elegance in using only a simple ankle attachment, but accidents where participants became detached led many commercial operators to use a body harness, if only as a backup for an ankle attachment. Body harnesses generally derive from climbing equipment rather than parachute equipment.Safety and possible injury Jumping at Kawarau Bridge in Queenstown, New Zealand, April 2007.Bungee jumping injuries may be divided into those that occur secondary to equipment mishap or tragic accident, and those that occur regardless of safety measures. In the first instance, injury can happen if the safety harness fails, the cord elasticity is miscalculated, or the cord is not properly connected to the jump platform. In 1986 Michael Lush died of multiple injuries after bungee jumping for a stunt on a BBC television programme[24] and in 1997, Laura Patterson, one of a 16-member professional bungee jumping team, died of massive cranial trauma when she jumped from the top level of the Louisiana Superdome and collided head-first into the concrete-based playing field. She was practicing for an exhibition intended to be performed ring the halftime show of Super Bowl XXXIInjuries that occur despite safety measures generally relate to the abrupt rise in upper body intravascular pressure ring bungee cord recoil. Eyesight damage is the most frequently reported complication.[25][26][27][28][29][30][31] Impaired eyesight secondary to retinal haemorrhage may be transient [29] or take several weeks to resolve [27] In one case, a 26 year old woman's eyesight was still impaired after 7 months [28] Whiplash injuries may occur as the jumper is jolted on the bungee cord and in at least one case, this has led to quadriplegia secondary to a broken neck. Very serious injury can also occur if the jumper's neck or body gets entangled in the cord.[32] More recently, carotid artery dissection leading to a type of stroke after bungee jumping has also been described.[33] All of these

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